1850s – 1860s


1853-4 US Commodore Matthew Perry visits Japan with his Black Ships, resulting in the Treaty of Kanagawa

1854 Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty

1858 Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Amity and Commerce – British diplomatic corps dispatched to Japan

1859 January – Kenneth Ross Mackenzie of Jardine Matheson moves to Nagasaki

1859 July – Ansei treaties officially in effect

1859 William Keswick (b 1834 Dumfriesshire) opens Jardine Matheson office in Yokohama.

1859 September – Thomas Blake Glover (b 1838 Aberdeenshire) posted to Nagasaki by Jardine Matheson from China.

1860 Foreigners allowed to settle in Yokohama

Foreigners’ Wine Party, Utagawa Yoshikazu 1860 (private collection of Pernille Rudlin)

1861-2 Thomas Glover becomes independent, launches Glover & Co

Party of foreigners 1861 – Utagawa Yoshitomi active 1840s-1860s – features Nankin (dancing), British (looking down), France (with drum), America (with stringed instrument), Dutch (with pipes), Russia (with horn) (private collection of Pernille Rudlin)
Hollander on Horse 1861, Utagawa Yoshifuji 1828-1887 (private collection of Pernille Rudlin)
American in Shinobazu, 1861 – Taguchi Yoshimori (Kuniharu) (private collection of Pernille Rudlin)

1862 Bakufu government send 38 Japanese men including Fukuzawa Yukichi and Terashima Munenori to Europe, including England

1862 International Exhibition in London, at which Sir Rutherford Alcock, British Consul-General in Japan, displays Japanese items.

1862 British born merchant Charles Richardson killed in the Namamugi Incident

1863 Anglo-Satsuma war

1863 Five Chōshu clan students (including Ito Hirobumi and Inoue Kaoru) sent secretly to Britain to study

Americans – Japanese translations of barbaric languages. 1863. Utagawa Yoshitora (private collection of Pernille Rudlin)

1865 Norwich born tea merchant Frederick Ringer arrives in Japan

1865 Satsuma clan send students to Britain to study (including Terashima Munenori)

1866 ban on overseas travel by Japanese lifted

1866 Shogunate send 14 students to study in Britain

1867 January, Emperor Komei dies

1867 February – Matsui Gensui‘s troupe performs in London, under contract to Glasgow-born ship contractor William Grant.

1867 August – The Great Dragon Troupe tour Britain

1867 Summer – Exposition Universelle in Paris, performances from Matusi Gensui and Risley’s Imperial Troupe. Thomas Jeckyll‘s Japonism style Vienna Gates exhibited

1867 November Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigns

1868 January Meiji Restoration, followed by Boshin War in which Satsuma and Chōshu forces defeat ex-shōgun’s army

1868 Professor Risley’s Imperial Troupe begins tour of Britain

1868 autumn, Glover dissolved his partnership, hands over tea export business to Frederick Ringer

1868 Meiji government charter oath, announcing that each daimyo should send officers to Britain

1868 December – Liverpool born Tannaker Buhicrosan brings his Royal Tycoon Troupe of Japanese to Britain